Preparing For Paediatrics: Important Questions– Given the limited number of PG seats in Government Medical Colleges, all NEET PG hopefuls face fierce competition for a coveted spot in a reputed Medical Institution. Candidates are nervous and anxious due to the highly demanding nature of many PG examinations. To reduce the candidate’s stress level and make preparation easier in order to get the most out of their study time, the easiest solution is to prepare a subject that is easy to correlate with and the subjects covered earlier, such as Paediatrics.
Paediatrics is one of the highest-scoring disciplines in the NEET PG. Though the NEET PG Paediatrics syllabus is extensive, the themes are more or less understandable if you paid close attention to the subject throughout your MBBS. Though numerous new updates, therapies, and other things have emerged throughout time, students preparing for NEET PG face a significant obstacle. As a result, students must be well-versed in all facets of paediatrics. Let’s start with the most vital things.
7 of the most important topics as per previous year patterns:
The majority of the questions are from General paediatrics and neonatology in particular.
- Primitive Neo-natal reflexes: You must determine if it arises before or after birth.
- Moro’s reflex: When does it appear/disappear, what does it mean, and what causes asymmetrical morose?
- Neonatology: Small/large for gestational age, basic definitions of Premature or full-term birth.
- Be well versed with Neonatal Resuscitation Guidelines: Use of a pulse oximeter, c-pac, targeted delivery, and situations in which it is not necessary to resuscitate a new-born
- Various birth complications and how they are treated. New-born Diseases should be extensively read.
- Development Milestones: One night before the exam, one reading should be assigned. Each of the four steps should be read thoroughly.
- Characteristics of a typical term infant after delivery in order to determine what is wrong, such as how to recognise a premature infant
For a better understanding, the following significant topics are summarised below:
Also, we suggest you go for e-Gurukul for a conceptualised learning. The lecture videos, question banks, GT’s will help you clear all doubts regarding the subject.
Resuscitation of New Born– New-born resuscitation, also known as neonatal resuscitation, is a term used to describe emergency medical intervention procedures used soon after births to help new-borns who are unable to breathe on their own.
Neonatology: The medical treatment of new-borns, particularly those who are sick or preterm, is a specialist of paediatrics. It’s a hospital-based speciality that’s most commonly used in neonatal intensive care units.
Breast Feeding: When it comes to breastfeeding, how long should a woman do it?
SAM (Including Parameters to know Malnutrition Severity) – Severe acute malnutrition is characterised as a weight-for-height/length ratio of less than -3 SD of the median WHO child growth standards, or a mid-upper arm circumference of less than 115 mm, or nutritional oedema.
Growth and Developmental Milestones – The theoretical milestones of child development, some of which are claimed in nativist theories, are known as child development phases.
Pica– It is the eating of non-nutritive items regularly. It’s frequent in children and can be linked to malnutrition, intellectual impairment, stress, and psychosis. ADHD – A chronic condition characterised by trouble paying attention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity.
Nocturnal Enuresis– The involuntary discharge of urine during sleep is known as nocturnal enuresis or bedwetting. Autism – a major developmental disability that makes it difficult to speak and interact with others.
Neonatal Jaundice– Jaundice is a common and usually innocuous illness that causes yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes in new-born. Neonatal jaundice is the medical name for jaundice in infants.
HIE– Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is a kind of brain injury in new-borns caused by a lack of oxygen and restricted blood flow. A birth injury known as HIE is a form of birth injury.
HMD– Hyaline membrane disease (HMD), commonly known as respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), is a disorder in which new-borns require additional oxygen and assistance in breathing.
Necrotizing Enterocolitis– The most prevalent and dangerous bowel condition in preterm new-borns is colitis. When tissue in the small or large intestine is wounded or inflamed, this happens.
National Immunization Schedule 2016– For Infants, Children and Pregnant Women. Vaccine. When to give. Dose. Route. Site. For Pregnant Women etc.
Gastro Intestinal Disorders
CHPS– As a result of hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the muscular layers of the pylorus, hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (HPS) induces a functional gastric outlet blockage in new-borns.
Intussusception– A condition in which a section of the intestine telescopes inward.
Hirschsprung Disease– The big intestine (colon) has a disorder that makes it difficult to pass faeces.
Reye Syndrome– Confusion, brain enlargement, and liver damage are all symptoms of this rare but dangerous illness.
Tracheoesophageal Fistula– An improper connection between these two tubes is called a tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF). As a result, liquids or food ingested by the infant may be aspirated (inhaled) into his or her lungs. Direct feeding into the stomach can result in stomach acid and food reflux and aspiration.
Hypertrophic Pyloric Stenosis– Thickening of the opening between the stomach and the small intestine.
CVS (Chorionic villus sampling)
VSD– ventricular septal defect, ASD– Autism spectrum disorder, TOF– Tetralogy of Fallot
TGA– Transient global amnesia, TAPVR– Total anomalous pulmonary venous return
Eisenmenger Complex– A syndrome that allows the mixing of pulmonary and systemic circulation, increased blood flow into the lungs, and subsequent reactions to low oxygen in the blood, and is connected with ventricular septal defect and other congenital heart problems.
Ebstein Anomaly – A syndrome that allows the mixing of pulmonary and systemic circulation, increased blood flow into the lungs, and subsequent reactions to low oxygen in the blood, and is connected with ventricular septal defect and other congenital heart problems.
RHD (latest criteria) – Rheumatic heart disease, Heart Failure and IE (Infective endocarditis)
Asthma, Pneumonia, PAP (Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis)
Cystic fibrosis- Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a genetic disease that affects the lungs, digestive system, and other bodily organs severely.
Bronchiolitis– Bronchiolitis is a frequent lung infection in new-borns and young children. It causes inflammation and obstruction in the lungs’ tiny airways (bronchioles).
Meningitis, Cerebral palsy, Hydrocephalus, Epilepsy, Anencephaly
Pedigree Chart, Chromosomal Disorders (trisomes, deletion), Mendelian Disorders, Non-Mendelian disorders, Teratogens, Prenatal Diagnosis Modalities.
Hyper and Hypothyroidism, Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia, (very important), Diabetes, Lysosomal Storage Disorders, Urea Cycle Defect Disorders, Von Gierke Disease, Canavan, Alexander, Krabbe Appearance on MRI.
HIV, Tuberculosis, Measles, Mumps, Rubella, Varicella
ALL, AML, IDA, Megaloblastic, Sickle, Thalassemia
Wilms Tumour, Neuroblastoma, ALL, AML, Myeloproliferative Diseases, Retinoblastomas.
From general pointers like preparing own notes, being thorough with the syllabus, dividing time between topics it’s also crucial that one should not rush into finishing the topics without understanding them. Emphasise crucial concepts in paediatrics as paediatricians frequently pose situation-based inquiries.