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The NEET PG exam preparation process sometimes becomes immensely laborious if the correct strategy is not adopted. It becomes difficult to memorise all the concepts and terms because of the extensive syllabus and high-flying jargon. The material must be presented simply and easily for students to remember it. Learning mnemonics methodology will boost your performance, and you can score high on the NEET PG exam.

It is imperative to select the right books to study from when preparing for NEET-PG. Often students will consider books that claim to offer shortcuts as being more appealing. Candidates are adversely impacted by such books because they approach the subject in a shallow manner! Hence, having the right books becomes a primary concern because these books assist the candidate in understanding all the concepts and allow them to get confused.


Mnemonics, also known as memory aids, are patterns of letters, numbers, or relatable associations that help you remember something. Among the mnemonic tools included are special rhymes and poems, acronyms, images, songs, and outlines. Among mnemonics, there are simple catchphrases and abbreviations as well as phrases and abbreviations.

Mnemonics help someone who has trouble remembering a difficult subject, concept, or list. According to it, we can use phrases that are memorable and help us connect the concepts we wish to remember with our minds. Learning and remembering key concepts in a variety of subjects is made smooth by these types of tools. They work because our minds tend to remember information that we can relate to in some way.

Evidence suggests that mnemonics can be used to aid memory formation for several tasks. The concept is widely used by doctors, scientists, geologists, artists, and students. Consider making yourself a mnemonic if you have trouble remembering something.

Keratoconus Iridocorneal Endothelial Syndrome

Keratoconus Iridocorneal Endothelial SyndromeCONESCentral scarring and Fleischer ring
Oil drop reflex / Oedema (hydrops)
Nerves prominent
Excessive bulging of the lower lid on downgaze 
Striae (Vogt’s)
ICEIris Naevus
Chandler Syndrome
Essential Iris Atrophy

A progressive corneal ectasia is known as keratoconus (KC) usually precedes it during the second decade of life. The disease is characterized by progressive corneal irregularities such as astigmatism, myopia, corneal ectasia, scarring, and thinning.

The iridocorneal endothelial syndrome (ICE) is a constellation of ophthalmic disorders in which the corneal endothelium becomes hyperproliferative and has structural defects. These syndromes commonly affect young to middle-aged individuals. Although ICE syndrome does not yet have an effective treatment, its cause remains a mystery. In recent years, there has been a growing consensus that Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) is the leading hypothesis for ICE syndrome.

Behcet’s Disease

Behcet’s DiseaseORAL UPSET

A disorder known as Behcet’s disease (BEH-CHETS), which also causes inflammation of blood vessels throughout the body, causes inflammation of Behcet’s disease.

Some of the symptoms can seem connected at first because the disease manifests several symptoms that appear separate at first. Many symptoms can occur, including mouth ulcers, inflammation of the eyes, blisters, and rashes on the skin, as well as genital ulcers.

Some medications can decrease the signs and symptoms of Behcet’s disease and prevent serious complications like blindness. As Behcet’s disease has no specific symptoms, the symptoms can come and go or there is a decrease in severity as time goes by. Signs and symptoms of a cancerous tumor will differ based on where it is located in your body.

Causes of trabecular pigmentation

Causes of trabecular pigmentation with PIGMENTPIGMENTPseudoexfoliation & Pigment dispersion syndromeIritis
Glaucoma (Post angle closure Glaucoma)
Melanosis of angle (oculodermal melanosis) Endocrine (Diabetes & Addison’s Syndrome)
Naevus (Cogan-reese syndrome)

Affected individuals may experience pigment dispersion syndrome (PDS) or pigmentary glaucoma (PG), which involve excessive pigment evaporation throughout the anterior segment. A classic triad of pigmentation is defined as dense trabecular meshwork pigmentation, mid peripheral iris transluminescence defects, and posterior pigment deposition on the corneal surface. In pigment dispersion syndrome or pigmentary glaucoma, accumulation of pigment in the trabecular meshwork reduces the ability of the aqueous to pour out and can lead to elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) or optic nerve damage that causes visual field loss. As the posterior iris rubs against the anterior lens zonules, pigment is released from the iris pigment epithelium, resulting in pigmentary glaucoma and PDS. Males are more likely to develop the disease, and it often begins in their mid-20s-50s.

Patients with pigmentary glaucoma have similar treatment options to those with primary open-angle glaucomas, such as medical therapy, laser trabeculoplasty, or incisional surgery with trabeculectomy for glaucoma drainage implant. As of now, laser iridotomy has not been proven to be effective in preventing PDS and Pigmentary Glaucoma.

Causes of Choroidal neovascular membrane

Causes of Choroidal neovascular membrane with HAMMARHAMMARHistoplasmosisARMD Multifocal Choroiditis
Rupture of the choroid

Blood vessels start growing underneath the retina and form choroidal neovascular membranes (CNVM). Blood vessels grow in the choroid, which is located at the base of the brain. The cell breaks through the barrier between the retina and the choroid. choroid and the retina. They cause vision loss when they leak or bleed in the retina.

Age-related macular degeneration, which is most common in CNVM patients, is one of those serious eye diseases. As well as histoplasmosis, eye injuries, and myopia-related macular degeneration, the CNVM can also be found in patients.

Ocular structures derived from neuroectoderm 

Ocular structures derived from neuroectoderm with MOREMOREMuscles of pupilOptic Nerve
Retina (with RPE)
Epithelium of Iris Epithelium of Cilliary Body

In the neural plate, the neuroectoderm produces the NECs that develop into the neural tube, giving rise to the neurons and glia that make up the CNS. NECs undergo morphological homogeneity when forming the neural tube, giving them the appearance of generic neural precursors. They have nonetheless a wealth of progenitor cells due to neural patterning and their homogenous appearance belies this fact. 

Sterilization in ophthalmology

Sterilization in ophthalmology with ABCDEFGABCDEFGAUTOCLAVEBOILING
CHEMICALS like Alcohol (Rectified spirit), Isopropyl alcohol/CIDEX: 2% Glutaraldehyde
DRY Heat temperature of 150°C is used for 90 minutes
ETHYLENE OXIDE for sterilization of IOL etc.
FUMIGATION of operation theatre/ FORMALIN vapour
GAMMA-IRRADIATION: Gamma rays from Cobalt-60

It is uncommon, but potentially sight-threatening, for cataract and other intraocular surgery patients to develop postoperative infectious endophthalmitis and toxic anterior segment syndrome (TASS). It is because of the small volume of the eye and its sensitivity to tiny amounts of chemical or microbial impurities that patients can sustain serious adverse reactions, if instruments are not cleaned or sterilized properly. Ophthalmic Instrument Cleaning and Sterilization (OICS) Task Force members include representatives from the American Academy of Ophthalmology (AAO), the American Society of Cataract and Refractive Surgery (ASCRS), and the Outpatient Ophthalmic Surgery Society (OOSS). The professional societies represent ophthalmologists and the staff of outpatient surgical centers providing ophthalmological care, such as nurses, technicians, and surgeons. Here are just a few tips to improve your score.

Symptoms and characteristics of Parinaud’s Dorsal Midbrain Syndrome

Symptoms and characteristics of Parinaud’s Dorsal Midbrain SyndromeCLUESConvergence retraction nystagmus
Light Near Dissociation
Upgaze paralysis
Eyelid retraction
Skew deviation

Parinaud syndrome, also known as dorsal midbrain syndrome or collicular syndrome, affects the brain’s midbrain.The lesion is located in the rostral dorsal midbrain and damages the superior colliculi of the pretectum. It is difficult for patients to look up and their vision is blurred at a distance. Multiple sclerosis, a stroke, a haemorrhage, a trauma, a tumor of the pineal gland, or a stroke can be responsible. 

Several conditions can mimic upgaze palsy, including progressive supranuclear palsy, thyroid ophthalmopathy, Guillain-Barré syndrome, or congenital upgaze limitation. Dorsal midbrain (Parinaud’s) syndrome causes vertical gaze paresis (upward). Some of the hallmark symptoms include lid retraction, convergence-retraction nystagmus, and light-near dissociations of the pupil. Vertical gaze is occasionally difficult in affected patients, but oculocephalic and pursuit eye movements can be observed.

Things to Remember

  • Make sure you understand the basics.
  • The preparation of notes on imp topics like cornea, conjunctiva, glaucoma, lens, and retina is necessary.
  • The preparation of short notes and essays should be done separately.
  • Whenever you come across imp diagrams in each chapter, keep a notebook.
  • You should review continuously, considering ophthalmology is a volatile subject.
  • Distractions should be avoided.
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